Natterin an aerolysin-like fish toxin drives IL-1β-dependent neutrophilic inflammation mediated by caspase-1 and caspase-11 activated by the inflammasome sensor NLRP6

Natterin is an aerolysin-like pore-forming toxin responsible for the toxic effects of the venom of the medically significant fish Thalassophryne nattereri. Using a combination of pharmacologic and genetic loss-of-function approaches we conduct a systematic investigation of the regulatory mechanisms that control Natterin-induced neutrophilic inflammation in the peritonitis model. Our data confirmed the capacity of Natterin to induce a strong and sustained neutrophilic inflammation leading to systemic inflammatory lung infiltration and revealed overlapping regulatory paths in its control. We found that Natterin induced the extracellular release of mature IL-1β and the sustained production of IL-33 by bronchial epithelial cells. We confirmed the dependence of both ST2/IL-33 and IL-17A/IL-17RA signaling on the local and systemic neutrophils migration, as well as the crucial role of IL-1α, caspase-1 and caspase-11 for neutrophilic inflammation. The inflammation triggered by Natterin was a gasdermin-D-dependent inflammasome process, despite the cells did not die by pyroptosis. Finally, neutrophilic inflammation was mediated by non-canonical NLRP6 and NLRC4 adaptors through ASC interaction, independent of NLRP3. Our data highlight that the inflammatory process dependent on non-canonical inflammasome activation can be a target for pharmacological intervention in accidents by T. nattereri, which does not have adequate specific therapy.
Keywords
Natterin;  Aerolysin;  Neutrophilia;  NLPR6/NLRC4;  Caspase-11/caspase-1;  IL-1α/β

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Lima C, Falcão MAP, Barros AIA, Silva ACS, Grund LZ, Balogh E, et al. Natterin an aerolysin-like fish toxin drives IL-1β-dependent neutrophilic inflammation mediated by caspase-1 and caspase-11 activated by the inflammasome sensor NLRP6. Int. Immunopharmacol.. 2021 Feb;91:107287. doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107287.
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