COVID-19 induces proatherogenic alterations in moderate to severe non-comorbid patients: a single-center observational study

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Patients with COVID-19 can be asymptomatic or present mild to severe symptoms, leading to respiratory and cardiovascular complications and death. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity are considered risk factors for COVID-19 poor prognosis. In parallel, COVID-19 severe patients exhibit dyslipidemia and alterations in neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) associated with disease severity and mortality. To investigate whether such alterations are caused by the infection or results from preexisting comorbidities, this work analyzed dyslipidemia and the hemogram profile of COVID-19 patients according to the severity and compared with patients without T2DM or obesity comorbidities. Dyslipidemia, with a marked decrease in HDL levels, and increased NLR accompanied the disease severity, even in non-T2DM and non-obese patients, indicating that COVID-19 causes the observed alterations. Because decreased hemoglobin is involved in COVID-19 severity, and hemoglobin concentration is associated with metabolic diseases, the erythrogram of patients was also evaluated. We verified a drop in hemoglobin and erythrocyte number in severe patients, independently of T2DM and obesity, which may explain in part the need for artificial ventilation in severe cases. Thus, the control of such parameters (especially HDL levels, NLR, and hemoglobin concentration) could be a good strategy to prevent COVID-19 complications and death.
Kimura LF, Sant´Anna MBM, Chudzinski SAA, Ebram MC, Lima CFG, Celano RM.G., et al. COVID-19 induces proatherogenic alterations in moderate to severe non-comorbid patients: A single-center observational study. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2021 Dec;92:102604. doi:10.1016/j.bcmd.2021.102604.
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