Tissue factor and COVID-19: an update

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The coronavirus 2019 [COVID-19] pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] virus. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 is associated with an acute respiratory distress syndrome, thrombosis and a high rate of mortality. Thrombotic events increase with severity. Tissue factor [TF] expression is increased during viral and bacterial infections. This review summarizes studies that have examined TF expression in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 virus and its proteins upregulate TF mRNA, protein and activity in a variety of cells, including bronchial epithelial cells, neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells and adventitial fibroblasts. COVID-19 patients have increased TF expression in lungs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and circulating extracellular vesicles. The increase in TF was associated with coagulation activation markers, thrombosis, inflammatory markers, severity of disease and mortality. Taken together, the studies suggest that TF plays a central role in thrombosis in COVID-19. TF may be a useful prognostic marker and therapeutic target to reduce thrombosis and inflammation.
Sachetto ATA, Mackman N. Tissue factor and COVID-19: an update. Curr Drug Targets. 2022 Oct; 23(17):1573-1577. doi:10.2174/1389450123666220926144432.
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