The immunomodulatory potential role of mesenchymal stem cells in diseases of the central nervous system

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Several studies indicate the role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an important tool in regenerative medicine associated with injuries that affect the central nervous system (CNS). The MSCs have the capacity to differentiate into cells of the embryonal tissue, such as the mesoderm. So, these cells can be found in a variety of tissues. Also, the MSCs can release immunomodulatory and neurotrophic factors performance as inflammation mediators operating in injured tissue the regeneration. Furthermore, they can differentiate into neural, like cells in vitro. Thereby, because of the high immunomodulatory role of MSCs, this review sought to describe the main immunomodulatory mechanisms performed by MSCs in CNS recovery after tissue injury or neurodegenerative diseases. Methods: PubMed and ScienceDirect were searched between January 2011 to March 2021 and 43 articles met the criteria of the review. Results: This systematic review indicate that MSCs were used in vivo experimental Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PA), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Ischemic Stroke (IS) and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). The treatment MSCs were usually from human origin, derived from bone marrow and administered intravenously. Discussion/Conclusion: It was shown that MSCs, independent from origin or administration pathway, can reduce inflammation and help in the recovery and preservation of injured neural tissue. Thus, the use of MSCs represents a potential therapeutic option in the treatment of neurological disorders mediated by inflammatory processes.
Rufino RA, Pereira-Rufino LS, Vissoto TCS, Kerkis I, Costa-Neves A, Silva MCP. The immunomodulatory potential role of mesenchymal stem cells in diseases of the central nervous system. Neurodegener Dis. 2022 Nov; 22:68-82. doi:10.1159/000528036.
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