Biochemical analyses of proteins from Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Bufo melanostictus) skin secretion: soluble protein retrieval from a viscous matrix by ion-exchange batch sample preparation

A crucial step in scientific analysis can be sample preparation, and its importance increases in the same rate as the sensitivity of the following employed/desired analytical technique does. The need to analyze complex, viscous matrices is not new, and diverse approaches have been employed, with different success rates depending on the intended molecules. Solid-phase extraction, for example, has been successfully used in sample preparation for organic molecules and peptides. However, due to the usual methodological conditions, biologically active proteins are not successfully retrieved by this technique, resulting in a low rate of protein identification reported for the viscous amphibian skin secretion. Here we describe an ion-exchange batch processing sample preparation technique that allows viscous or adhesive materials (as some amphibian skin secretions) to be further processed by classical liquid chromatography approaches. According to our protocol, samples were allowed to equilibrate with a specific resin that was washed with appropriated buffers in order to yield the soluble protein fraction. In order to show the efficiency of our methodology, we have compared our results to classically prepared skin secretion, i.e., by means of filtration and centrifugation. After batch sample preparation, we were able to obtain reproductive resolved protein chromatographic profiles, as revealed by SDS-PAGE, and retrieve some biological activities, namely, hydrolases belonging to serine peptidase family. Not only that, but also the unbound fraction was rich in low molecular mass molecules, such as alkaloids and steroids, making this sample preparation technique also suitable for the enrichment of such molecules.
Keywords
Batch chromatography;  Ion-exchange chromatography;  Viscous sample;  Amphibian skin secretion;  Hydrolase

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Mariano DOC, Messias MDG, Prezotto-Neto JP, Pimenta DC, Spencer PJ.. Biochemical analyses of proteins from Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Bufo melanostictus) skin secretion: soluble protein retrieval from a viscous matrix by ion-exchange batch sample preparation. Protein J. 2018 Aug;37(4):380–89. doi:10.1007/s10930-018-9780-z.
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