A biotechnological approach to immunotherapy: antivenom against Crotalus durissus cascavella snake venom produced from biodegradable nanoparticles

Snakebite envenoming is a tropical disease neglected worldwide. In Brazil, the Crotalus durissus cascavella (CDC) snake belongs to a genus with venom of highest lethality. A search for new immunoadjuvants aimed to expand the therapeutic alternatives to improve vaccines and antivenom. This approach proposed to produce small and narrow-sized cationic CDC venom-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CHNP) able to induce antibody response against the CDC venom. The ionic gelation method induced the formation of stable and slightly smooth spherical nanoparticles (<160?nm) with protein loading efficiency superior to 90%. The interactions between venom proteins and CHNP assessed using FT-IR spectroscopy corroborated with the in vitro release behavior of proteins from nanoparticles. Finally, the immunization animal model using BALB/c mice demonstrated the higher effectiveness of CDC venom-loaded CHNP compared to aluminum hydroxide, a conventional immunoadjuvant. Thus, CHNPs loaded with CDC venom exhibited a promising biotechnological approach to immunotherapy.
Keywords
Crotalus durissus cascavella;  Antivenom;  Chitosan nanoparticles

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Gláucia-Silva F, Torres-Rêgo M, Soares KSR, Damasceno IZ, Tambourgi DV, Silva-Júnior AA, et al. A biotechnological approach to immunotherapy: antivenom against Crotalus durissus cascavella snake venom produced from biodegradable nanoparticles. Int. J. Biol. Macromol.. 2018 Dec;120(Part B):1917-24. doi:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.09.203.
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