Microevolution of medically important mosquitoes: a review

This review intends to discuss central issues regarding the microevolution of mosquito (Culicidae) vectors of several pathogens and how this process impacts vector biology, disease transmission, and vector control attempts. On the microevolutionary context, it comparatively discusses the current knowledge on the population genetics of representatives of the genera Aedes, Anopheles and Culex, and comments on insecticide resistance of culicids. It also discusses other biological aspects of culicids that are not usually addressed in microevolutionary studies, such as vectorial competence, endosymbiosis, and wing morphology. One conclusion is that mosquitoes are highly genetically variable, adaptable, fast evolving, and have versatile vectorial competence. Unveiling microevolutionary patterns is fundamental for the design and maintenance of all control programs. Sampling methods for assessing microevolution must be standardized and must follow meaningful guidelines, such as those of "landscape genetics". A good understanding of microevolution requires more than a collection of case studies on population genetics and resistance. Future research could deal not only with the microevolution sensu stricto, but also with evolutionarily meaningful issues, such as inheritable characters, epigenetics, physiological cost-free plasticity, vector immunity, symbiosis, pathogen-mosquito co-evolution and environmental variables. A genotyping panel for seeking adaptive phenotypes as part of the standardization of population genetics methods is proposed. The investigative paradigm should not only be retrospective but also prospective, despite the unpredictability of evolution. If we integrate all suggestions to tackle mosquito evolution, a global revolution to counter vector-borne diseases can be provoked.
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Culicidae;  Vector-borne diseases;  Evolution;  Adaptation;  Evolvability

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Suesdek L. Microevolution of medically important mosquitoes: a review. Acta. Trop.. 2019 Mar;191:162-171. doi:10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.12.013.
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