Whole-genome duplication and hemoglobin differentiation traits between allopatric populations of Brazilian Odontophrynus americanus species complex (Amphibia, Anura)

Two allopatric populations of Brazilian diploid and tetraploid Odontophrynus americanus species complex, both from São Paulo state, had their blood hemoglobin biochemically analyzed. In addition, these specimens were cytogenetically characterized. Biochemical characterization of hemoglobin expression showed a distinct banding pattern between the allopatric specimens. Besides this, two distinct phenotypes, not linked to ploidy, sex, or age, were observed in adult animals of both populations. Phenotype A exhibits dark-colored body with small papillae, ogival-shaped jaw with reduced interpupillary distance and shorter hind limbs. Phenotype B shows yellowish-colored body with larger papillae, arch-shaped jaw with broader interpupillary distance and longer hind limbs. Intermediate phenotypes were also found. Considering the geographical isolation of both populations, differences in chromosomal secondary constrictions and distinct hemoglobins banding patterns, these data indicate that 2n and 4n populations represent cryptic species in the O. americanus species complex. The observed phenotypic diversity can be interpreted as population genetic variability. Eventually future data may indicate a probable beginning of speciation in these Brazilian frogs. Such inter- and intrapopulational differentiation/speciation process indicates that O. americanus species complex taxonomy deserves further evaluation by genomics and metabarcoding communities, also considering the pattern of hemoglobin expression, in South American frogs.
Keywords
Anura;  cryptic species;  hemoglobin differentiation;  polyploidy;  whole-genome duplication

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Cianciarullo AM, Bonini-Domingos CR., Vizotto LD., Kobashi LS, Beçak ML, Beçak W. Whole-genome duplication and hemoglobin differentiation traits between allopatric populations of Brazilian Odontophrynus americanus species complex (Amphibia, Anura). Genet. Mol. Biol.. 2019 Jun;42(2):436-444. doi:10.1590/1678-4685-gmb-2017-0260.
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