First record of translocation in Culicidae (Diptera) mitogenomes: evidence from the tribe Sabethini

Background: The tribe Sabethini (Diptera: Culicidae) contains important vectors of the yellow fever virus and presents remarkable morphological and ecological diversity unequalled in other mosquito groups. However, there is limited information about mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from these species. As mitochondrial genetics has been fundamental for posing evolutionary hypotheses and identifying taxonomical markers, in this study we sequenced the first sabethine mitogenomes: Sabethes undosus, Trichoprosopon pallidiventer, Runchomyia reversa, Limatus flavisetosus, and Wyeomyia confusa. In addition, we performed phylogenetic analyses of Sabethini within Culicidae and compared its mitogenomic architecture to that of other insects. Results: Similar to other insects, the Sabethini mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a control region. However, the gene order is not the same as that in other mosquitoes; the tyrosine (Y) and cysteine (C) tRNA genes have translocated. In general, mitogenome rearrangements within insects are uncommon events; the translocation reported here is unparalleled among Culicidae and can be considered an autapomorphy for the Neotropical sabethines. Conclusions: Our study provides clear evidence of gene rearrangements in the mitogenomes of these Neotropical genera in the tribe Sabethini. Gene order can be informative at the taxonomic level of tribe. The translocations found, along with the mitogenomic sequence data and other recently published findings, reinforce the status of Sabethini as a well-supported monophyletic taxon. Furthermore, T. pallidiventer was recovered as sister to R. reversa, and both were placed as sisters of other Sabethini genera (Sabethes, Wyeomyia, and Limatus).
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Mitochondria;  Insect;  Rearrangement;  Autapomorphy;  Neotropical

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Lorenz C, Alves JMP, Foster PG, Sallum MAM, Suesdek L. First record of translocation in Culicidae (Diptera) mitogenomes: evidence from the tribe Sabethini. BMC Genomics. 2019 Sep;20:721. doi:10.1186/s12864-019-6069-3.
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