Anaphylaxis induced by Thalassophryne nattereri venom in mice is an IgE/IgG1-mediated, IL-4-dependent phenomenon

We hypothesized that beyond the Thalassophryne nattereri venoms ability to induce in mice a strong specific-Th2 response with high levels of specific IgE/IgG1, it would be able to trigger anaphylaxis in sensitized individuals. To investigate whether the venom is capable of inducing an allergic reaction in mice and characterize soluble and cellular mediators involved in this process, BALB/c female mice were sensitized intraperitoneally with decreasing-dose of venom at weekly intervals for 4 weeks and challenged by intraperitoneal, oral or epicutaneous routes with venom 2 weeks later. Our data show that sensitized-mice challenged by all routes showed intense symptoms of anaphylaxis, dependent on the anaphylactic IgG1 and IgE antibodies and mast cells. The late-phase reaction developed after initial symptoms was characterized by the influx of eosinophils, dependent on IL-5, IL-17A and eotaxin produced by Th2 cells in inflamed lungs and skin draining lymph-nodes. Using C57BL/6 deficient mice we demonstrated that IL-4 KO mice failed to develop anaphylactic symptoms or local Th2 inflammation, producing low levels of IgG1 and increased levels of IgG2a. Together our results demonstrated that the venom of T. nattereri has allergenic proteins that can trigger an allergic process, a phenomenon IgE-IgG1 dependent, IL-4-mediated and negatively regulated by IFN-gama.

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Soliani FMB, Medeiros EMMC, Andrade-Barros AI, Grund LZ, Lopes-Ferreira M, Lima C. Anaphylaxis induced by Thalassophryne nattereri venom in mice is an IgE/IgG1-mediated, IL-4-dependent phenomenon. Sci. Rep.. 2020 Jan;10:584. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-57231-y.
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