The inhibitory effect of Pha1ß toxin on diabetic neuropathic pain involves the CXCR4 chemokine receptor

Background Diabetic neuropathy is a common cause of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expression is increased in peripheral nerve samples from diabetes patients, suggesting a role for CXCR4 in PDN. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of Pha1ß, Ômega-conotoxin MVIIA, and AMD3100 in a model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced PDN in rodents and naïve model of rats with the activation of the CXCR4/stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) signal. Methods Diabetic neuropathy was induced by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of STZ in Wistar rats. Naïve rats were intrathecally injected with SDF-1 to test the CXCR4/SDF-1 signal. The effects of Pha1ß intrathecal (it), Ômega-conotoxin MVIIA intrathecal (it), and AMD3100 intraperitoneal (ip) on rat hypersensitivity, IL-6, and the intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i content of diabetic synaptosomes were studied. Results The drugs reduced the hypersensitivity in diabetic rats. SDF-1 (1.0 µg/it) administration in naïve rats induced hypersensitivity. Pha1ß (100 pmol/it) or AMD3100 (2.5 µg/ip) reduced this hypersensitivity after 2 h treatments, while Ômega-conotoxin MVIIA did not have an effect. IL-6 and [Ca2+]i content increased in the spinal cord synaptosomes in diabetic rats. The drug treatments reduced IL-6 and the calcium influx in diabetic synaptosomes. Conclusions Pha1ß, Ômega-conotoxin MVIIA, and AMD3100, after 2 h of treatment of STZ-induced PDN, reduced hypersensitivity in diabetic rats. In naïve rats with CXCR4/SDF-1 activation, the induced hypersensitivity decreased after 2 h treatments with Pha1ß or AMD-3100, while Ômega-conotoxin MVIIA did not affect. The inhibitory effects of Pha1ß on PDN may involve voltage-dependent calcium channels.
Keywords
Diabetic neuropathy;  Pha1ß;  ômega-Conotoxin MVIIA;  AMD3100;  CXCR4 chemokine receptor

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Junior CAS, Junior CJC, Pereira EMR, Binda NS, Silva JF, Cordeiro MN, et al. The inhibitory effect of Pha1ß toxin on diabetic neuropathic pain involves the CXCR4 chemokine receptor. Pharmacol Rep. 2020 Jan;72:47–54. doi:10.1007/s43440-019-00002-3.
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