Simple Nanoparticles from the Assembly of Cationic Polymer and Antigen as Immunoadjuvants

Since antigens are negatively charged, they combine well with positively charged adjuvants. Here, ovalbumin (OVA) (0.1 mg·mL-1) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) (0.01 mg·mL-1) yielded PDDA/OVA assemblies characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as spherical nanoparticles (NPs) of 170 ± 4 nm hydrodynamic diameter, 30 ± 2 mV of zeta-potential and 0.11 ± 0.01 of polydispersity. Mice immunization with the NPs elicited high OVA-specific IgG1 and low OVA-specific IgG2a production, indicating a Th-2 response. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH) was low and comparable to the one elicited by Al(OH)3/OVA, suggesting again a Th-2 response. PDDA advantages as an adjuvant were simplicity (a single-component adjuvant), low concentration needed (0.01 mg·mL-1 PDDA) combined with antigen yielding neglectable cytotoxicity, and high stability of PDDA/OVA dispersions. The NPs elicited much higher OVA-specific antibodies production than Al(OH)3/OVA. In vivo, the nano-metric size possibly assured antigen presentation by antigen-presenting cells (APC) at the lymph nodes, in contrast to the location of Al(OH)3/OVA microparticles at the site of injection for longer periods with stimulation of local dendritic cells. In the future, it will be interesting to evaluate combinations of the antigen with NPs carrying both PDDA and elicitors of the Th-1 response
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cationic polymer;  poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride);  model antigen;  ovalbumin;  antigen/cationic polymer nanoparticles;  poly-cation cytotoxicity;  dynamic light scattering;  scanning electron microscopy;  ELISA assays;  delayed-type hypersensitivity assay

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Pérez-Betancourt Y, Távora BCLF, Colombini M, Faquim Mauro EL, Carmona-Ribeiro AM. Simple Nanoparticles from the Assembly of Cationic Polymer and Antigen as Immunoadjuvants. Vaccines. 2020 Feb;8(1):105. doi:10.3390/vaccines8010105.
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