Extracellular Vesicles isolated from mesenchymal stromal cells modulate CD4+ T lymphocytes toward a regulatory profile

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can generate immunological tolerance due to their regulatory activity in many immune cells. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) release is a pivotal mechanism by which MSCs exert their actions. In this study, we evaluate whether mesenchymal stromal cell extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) can modulate T cell response. MSCs were expanded and EVs were obtained by differential ultracentrifugation of the supernatant. The incorporation of MSC-EVs by T cells was detected by confocal microscopy. Expression of surface markers was detected by flow cytometry or CytoFLEX and cytokines were detected by RT-PCR, FACS and confocal microscopy and a miRNA PCR array was performed. We demonstrated that MSC-EVs were incorporated by lymphocytes in vitro and decreased T cell proliferation and Th1 differentiation. Interestingly, in Th1 polarization, MSC-EVs increased Foxp3 expression and generated a subpopulation of IFN-gama+/Foxp3+T cells with suppressive capacity. A differential expression profile of miRNAs in MSC-EVs-treated Th1 cells was seen, and also a modulation of one of their target genes, TGFbR2. MSC-EVs altered the metabolism of Th1-differentiated T cells, suggesting the involvement of the TGF-ß pathway in this metabolic modulation. The addition of MSC-EVs in vivo, in an OVA immunization model, generated cells Foxp3+. Thus, our findings suggest that MSC-EVs are able to specifically modulate activated T cells at an alternative regulatory profile by miRNAs and metabolism shifting
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mesenchymal stromal cells;  extracellular vesicles;  Th1 polarization;  miRNA;  metabolism

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Cunha FF, Andrade-Oliveira V, Almeida DC, Silva TB, Breda CNS, Cruz MC, et al. Extracellular Vesicles isolated from mesenchymal stromal cells modulate CD4+ T lymphocytes toward a regulatory profile. Cells. 2020 Apr;9(4):1059. doi:10.3390/cells9041059.
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