Distribution of major toxins in Rhinella marina parotoid macroglands using desorption-electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI)

Amphibian cutaneous glands secrete toxins used in different vital functions including passive defense. Through Desorption Electrospray Ionization-Imaging we analyzed the distribution of the major toxins of the toad Rhinella marina parotoid macroglands. Alkaloids and steroids showed characteristic distribution and intensity within the glands and were also present at lower levels on the skin surface. A comprehensive overview of toxins distribution in toads’ skin might help to understand their full biological role within the amphibians.
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Rhinella marina;  DESI-MSI;  Steroids;  Alkaloids;  Imaging;  Parotoid;  Skin glands

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Mailho-Fontana PL, Porcari AM., Eberlin MN., Jared C, Antoniazzi MM, Pimenta DC, et al. Distribution of major toxins in Rhinella marina parotoid macroglands using desorption-electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI). Toxicon X. 2020 Jun;6:100033. doi:10.1016/j.toxcx.2020.100033.
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