Cleavage of proteoglycans, plasma proteins and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor in the hemorrhagic process induced by snake venom metalloproteinases

Envenoming by viperid snakes results in a complex pattern of tissue damage, including hemorrhage, which in severe cases may lead to permanent sequelae. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are main players in this pathogenesis, acting synergistically upon different mammalian proteomes. Hemorrhagic Factor 3 (HF3), a P-III class SVMP from Bothrops jararaca, induces severe local hemorrhage at pmol doses in a murine model. Our hypothesis is that in a complex scenario of tissue damage, HF3 triggers proteolytic cascades by acting on a partially known substrate repertoire. Here, we focused on the hypothesis that different proteoglycans, plasma proteins, and the platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) could be involved in the HF3-induced hemorrhagic process. In surface plasmon resonance assays, various proteoglycans were demonstrated to interact with HF3, and their incubation with HF3 showed degradation or limited proteolysis. Likewise, Western blot analysis showed in vivo degradation of biglycan, decorin, glypican, lumican and syndecan in the HF3-induced hemorrhagic process. Moreover, antithrombin III, complement components C3 and C4, factor II and plasminogen were cleaved in vitro by HF3. Notably, HF3 cleaved PDGFR (alpha and beta) and PDGF in vitro, while both receptor forms were detected as cleaved in vivo in the hemorrhagic process induced by HF3. These findings outline the multifactorial character of SVMP-induced tissue damage, including the transient activation of tissue proteinases, and underscore for the first time that endothelial glycocalyx proteoglycans and PDGFR are targets of SVMPs in the disruption of microvasculature integrity and generation of hemorrhage.
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Biochemistry;  Cell biology;  Molecular biology

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Asega AF, Santos MCM, Silva DT, Carvalho DCOS, Nasciben LB, Oliveira AK, et al. Cleavage of proteoglycans, plasma proteins and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor in the hemorrhagic process induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. Sci. Rep.. 2020 Jul;10:12912. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-69396-y.
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