Bleeding disorders in bothrops atrox envenomations in the Brazilian Amazon: participation of hemostatic factors and the impact of tissue factor

Bleeding is a common hemostatic disorder that occurs in Bothrops envenomations. We evaluated the changes in coagulation, fibrinolysis components, and platelets in Bothrops atrox envenomations with bleeding. This is an observational study with B. atrox snakebite patients (n = 100) treated in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon. Bleeding was recorded on admission and during hospitalization. We found that the platelet count in our patients presented a weak correlation to tissue factor, factor II, and plasminogen. Tissue factor presented weak correlation to factor V, II, D-dimer, plasminogen, alpha 2-antiplasmin, and moderate correlation to fibrinogen and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation product (FDP). Patients with systemic bleeding (n = 20) presented low levels of factor V, II, fibrinogen, plasminogen, and alpha 2-antiplasmin, and high levels of tissue factor and FDP compared to those without bleeding. Patients with only local bleeding (n = 41) and without bleeding showed similar levels of hemostatic factors. Thrombocytopenia was observed mainly in patients with systemic bleeding and increased levels of serum venom. No association was found between venom levels and systemic bleeding, or between venom levels and clinical severity of envenomation. This is the first report that shows the participation of the extrinsic coagulation pathway in the consumption coagulopathy of B. atrox envenomations with systemic bleeding due to tissue factor release.
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Bothrops atrox envenomation;  coagulation factors;  systemic bleeding;  thrombocytopenia;  tissue factor

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Oliveira SS., Alves EC., Santos AS., Nascimento EF., Pereira JPT., Silva IM., et al. Bleeding disorders in bothrops atrox envenomations in the Brazilian Amazon: participation of hemostatic factors and the impact of tissue factor. Toxins. 2020 Aug;19(2):554. doi:10.3390/toxins12090554.
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