Bitis arietans snake venom induces an inflammatory response which Is partially dependent on lipid mediators
Bitis arietans is a snake of medical importance, as it is responsible for more accidents in humans and domestic animals than all other African snakes put together. The accidents are characterized by local and systemic alterations, such as inflammation, cardiovascular and hemostatic disturbances, which can lead victims to death or permanent disability. However, little is known about the envenomation mechanism, especially regarding the inflammatory response, which is related to severe clinical conditions triggered by the venom. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the inflammatory response related to the B. arietans envenomation using a peritonitis mice model. By pharmacological interventions and use of mice genetically deficient of the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme (5-LO−/−) or platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor (PAFR−/− the participation of eicosanoids and PAF in this response was also investigated. The obtained results demonstrated that the venom induces an in vivo inflammatory response, characterized by an early increased vascular permeability, followed by an accumulation of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in the peritoneal cavity, accompanied by the production of the eicosanoids LTB4, LTC4, TXB2 and PGE2, as well as the local and systemic production of IL-6 and MCP-1. These inflammatory events were attenuated by the pre-treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs that interfere in lipid mediators’ functions. However, 5-LO−/− mice did not show a reduction of inflammatory response induced by the venom, while PAFR−/− mice showed a reduction in both the PMN leukocytes number and the local and systemic production of IL-6 and MCP-1. This study demonstrated that the Bitis arietans venom contains toxins that trigger an inflammatory process, which is partially dependent on lipid mediators, and may contribute to the envenomation pathology
Bitis arietans venom; inflammatory process; lipid mediators; genetically deficient mice
Megale AAA, Portaro FCV, Dias da Silva W. Bitis arietans snake venom induces an inflammatory response which Is partially dependent on lipid mediators. Toxins. 2020 Sept;12(9):594. doi:10.3390/toxins12090594.
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