Ground spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) associated with urban forest fragments in southern Amazon
Aranhas de solo (Arachnida, Araneae) associadas a fragmentos florestais urbanos no sul da Amazônia
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Forest fragments in urban areas comprise important habitats for a wide variety of species, however, conservationist policies for their maintenance and conservation are still incipient. This study examined the richness and abundance of the ground-spider assemblage in five forest fragments, with areas ranging between 18.5 and 103.98 ha, in the urban perimeter of Sinop, northern Mato Grosso State, southern Amazon region of Brazil. Sampling was carried out using the mini-Winkler extractor and pitfall traps in the dry (July) and rainy (November) seasons of 2017. All fragments were characterized in relation to the area and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), to assess the effect of these variables on richness and abundance of soil spider assemblage. A total of 653 spiders were sampled, corresponding to 25 families and 52 species. Salticidae, Theridiidae, Lycosidae, Linyphiidae, Oonopidae and Symphytognathidae were the most abundant families (63.3% of the total sample). The assemblage was characterized by the dominance of hunting spiders (393 ind.; 60.2%) over web-building spiders (260 ind.; 39.8%). Greater spider abundance and richness was obtained during the rainy season (517 ind.; 79.2%; 41 spp.) as compared with the dry season (136 ind.; 20.8%; 24 spp.). Only 13 species occurred in dry and rainy season. Two species were recorded for the first time in the Amazon region, namely, Anapistula aquytabueraRheims & Brescovit, 2003 (Symphytognathidae) and Opopaea concolor (Blackwall, 1859) (Oonopidae). Species richness was not affected by IBI and area of fragment. Although the statistical model is not significant, species richness increases slightly with IBI and area of fragment. Similarly, abundance of spiders was not affected by IBI and area of fragment. Regardless of the area size, all evaluated forest fragments showed a low and regular IBI, demonstrating that these habitats have suffered with the pressures inherent from the urban perimeter, including the constant expansion of human occupation as well as misuse by the population. Nonetheless, these same fragments revealed considerable richness of species of ground spiders and can thus be categorized as important habitats for the maintenance of regional biodiversity. Therefore, action strategies must be set out to ensure their conservation.
Santos GE.R., Solera K, Costa CA., Marques MI., Brescovit AD, Battirola LD.. Ground spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) associated with urban forest fragments in southern Amazon. Biota Neotrop.. 2020 Dec;20(4):e20201062. doi:10.1590/1676-0611-bn-2020-1062.
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