Venom profiling of the insular species Bothrops alcatraz: characterization of proteome, Glycoproteome, and N-Terminome using terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates
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Bothrops alcatraz, a species endemic to Alcatrazes Islands, is regarded as critically endangered due to its small area of occurrence and the declining quality of its habitat. We recently reported the identification of N-glycans attached to toxins of Bothrops species, showing similar compositions in venoms of the B. jararaca complex (B. jararaca, B. insularis, and B. alcatraz). Here, we characterized B. alcatraz venom using electrophoretic, proteomic, and glycoproteomic approaches. Electrophoresis showed that B. alcatraz venom differs from B. jararaca and B. insularis; however, N-glycan removal revealed similarities between them, indicating that the occupation of N-glycosylation sites contributes to interspecies variability in the B. jararaca complex. Metalloproteinase was the major toxin class identified in the B. alcatraz venom proteome followed by serine proteinase and C-type lectin, and overall, the adult B. alcatraz venom resembles that of B. jararaca juvenile specimens. The comparative glycoproteomic analysis of B. alcatraz venom with B. jararaca and B. insularis indicated that there may be differences in the utilization of N-glycosylation motifs among their different toxin classes. Furthermore, we prospected for the first time the N-terminome of a snake venom using the terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates (TAILS) approach and report the presence of ∼30% of N-termini corresponding to truncated toxin forms and ∼37% N-terminal sequences blocked by pyroglutamic acid in B. alcatraz venom. These findings underscore a low correlation between venom gland transcriptomes and proteomes and support the view that post-translational processes play a major role in shaping venom phenotypes.
Andrade-Silva D, Zelanis A, Travaglia-Cardoso SR, Nishiyama Junior MY, Serrano SMT. Venom profiling of the insular species Bothrops alcatraz: characterization of proteome, Glycoproteome, and N-Terminome using terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates. J. Proteome Res.. 2021 Jan;20(2):1341-1358. doi:10.1021/acs.jproteome.0c00737.
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