First chromosomal analysis in Deinopidae (Araneae) reveals sex Chromosome system X1X2X3X4, B chromosomes and polymorphism for centric fusion
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Here we present the first cytogentic study concerning Deinopidae and their controversial phylogenetic position. This study karyologically analyzed one population of Deinopis biaculeata Simon, 1906 and five populations of Deinopis plurituberculata Mello-Leitão, 1925. The majority of specimens of D. plurituberculata exhibited 2n♂ = 40 and 2n♀ = 44 telocentric chromosomes (however some of them showed B chromosomes, belongs to Aquidauana and Botucatu population). The Deinopis biaculeata and D. plurituberculata meiosis of males showed 18 autosomal bivalents + X1X2X3X4, n = 22 and n = 18, a rare sex chromosome system (SCS) in spiders. Some individuals of D. plurituberculata from the Campo Grande population exhibited 2n♂ = 39 and 2n♀ = 43, with a metacentric chromosome (heterozygotes for centric fusion). The D. plurituberculata males with the rearrangement exhibit diplotenes with 16 autosomal bivalents + 1 autosomal trivalent + X1X2X3X4 and metaphases II with n = 22 (18 telocentric autosomes + X1X2X3X4), n = 21 (16 telocentric autosomes + a metacentric autosome + X1X2X3X4), n = 18 (18 telocentric autosomes) and n = 17 (16 telocentric autosomes + a metacentric autosome). The Ag-NORs (silver impregnation) are terminally located in a pair, coinciding with secondary constriction, which is the most common configuration for Araneae. The relatively high diploid number in Deinopis corroborates phylogenies that place it in a basal position among Entelegynes, in the UDOH grade (Uloboridae, Deinopidae, Oecobiidae and Hersiliidae). Centric fusion in only one population of D. plurituberculata suggests low dispersion capacity of this species and an absence of homozygotes for fusion suggests their low viability or a need to increase the population sampling of D. plurituberculata exhibiting the rearrangement. B chromosomes were detected in D. plurituberculata, with interpopulacional, intrapopulacional and intraindividual numerical variation, with cells presenting 0 - 3 and 0 - 6 B chromosomes in populations of Aquidauana and Botucatu, respectively.
Souza LHB, Silva BC, Costa CC, Brescovit AD, Rincão MP, Dias AL, et al. First chromosomal analysis in Deinopidae (Araneae) reveals sex Chromosome system X1X2X3X4, B chromosomes and polymorphism for centric fusion. Zoology. 2021 June;146:125906. doi:10.1016/j.zool.2021.125906.
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