Bites by Xenodon merremii (Wagler, 1824) and Xenodon neuwiedii (Günther, 1863) (Dipsadidae: Xenodontini) in São Paulo, Brazil: a retrospective observational study of 163 cases

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dc.contributorHVB - Hospital Vital Brazilpt_BR
dc.contributorLEEV - Laboratório de Ecologia e Evoluçãopt_BR
dc.contributor.authorGendler, José Luiz Pinto Limapt_BR
dc.contributor.authorSouza, Solange Nogueira dept_BR
dc.contributor.authorMarques, Otavio Augusto Vuolopt_BR
dc.contributor.authorMiyaji, Karina Takesakipt_BR
dc.contributor.authorMedeiros, Carlos Roberto dept_BR
dc.identifier.citationGendler JLPL, Souza SN, Marques OAV, Miyaji KT, Medeiros CR. Bites by Xenodon merremii (Wagler, 1824) and Xenodon neuwiedii (Günther, 1863) (Dipsadidae: Xenodontini) in São Paulo, Brazil: a retrospective observational study of 163 cases. Toxicon. 2021 July;198:24-31. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2021.04.021.pt_BR
dc.description.abstractDespite the biological relevance and abundance of non-front-fanged colubroid snakes, little is known about their medical significance. Here, we describe the clinical, epidemiological, and biological aspects of bites by two colubroid species. We retrospectively analyzed cases of Xenodon merremii and Xenodon neuwiedii bites in which the offending snake was clearly identified. Analyses included variables related to the snake and the patient, including demographic data, clinical findings, and treatments. Of the 163 cases, 123 were bites by X. merremii and 40 by X. neuwiedii. Most bites occurred in spring and summer, predominantly during the daytime. Most offending snakes were female. Bites by X. merremii juveniles were more frequent in autumn than in other seasons, whereas those by X. neuwiedii adults were in the summer. Hands and feet were the most frequently affected regions, with no significant difference between upper and lower limbs bitten by either X. merremii or X. neuwiedii. The main clinical findings were pain, transitory bleeding, erythema, and local edema. Local edema was proportionally more frequent with X. neuwiedii bites than with X. merremii bites. No patient had extensive edema or systemic envenomation. A significant association between the snout-vent-length and transitory bleeding in bites by X. merremii, but not in those by X. neuwiedii, was identified. Whole blood clotting tests were normal in all tested patients (62 cases). Sixteen patients were incorrectly treated with anti-Bothrops antivenom. In conclusion, most accidents caused by X. merremii and X. neuwiedii present mild local symptomatology. These snakes can be mistaken for lance-headed vipers, and some bites present symptoms that resemble mild bites by Bothrops sp. Physicians should be aware of X. merremii and X. neuwiedii bites to avoid unnecessary patient distress and overprescription of antivenom.pt_BR
dc.rightsRestricted Accesspt_BR
dc.titleBites by Xenodon merremii (Wagler, 1824) and Xenodon neuwiedii (Günther, 1863) (Dipsadidae: Xenodontini) in São Paulo, Brazil: a retrospective observational study of 163 casespt_BR
dc.contributor.externalUniversidade de São Paulo (USP)pt_BR
dc.contributor.externalCoordenadoria de Vigilância em Saúde (COVISA)pt_BR
dc.contributor.externalCentro Universitário São Camilopt_BR
dc.subject.keywordXenodon merremiipt_BR
dc.subject.keywordXenodon neuwiediipt_BR
dc.subject.keywordNon-venomous snakespt_BR
dc.subject.keywordNon-front-fanged colubroidspt_BR
dc.identifier.citationabntv. 198, p. 24-31, jul. 2021pt_BR
dc.identifier.citationvancouver2021 July;198:24-31pt_BR
dc.contributor.butantanSouza, Solange Nogueira de|:Pesquisador|:HBV - Hospital Vital Brazilpt_BR
dc.contributor.butantanMarques, Otávio Augusto Vuolo|:Pesquisador|:LEEV - Laboratório de Ecologia e Evoluçãopt_BR
dc.contributor.butantanMedeiros, Carlos Roberto de|:Pesquisador|:LEEV - Laboratório de Ecologia e Evoluçãopt_BR
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