Multiple adverse effects of textile effluents and reactive Red 239 dye to aquatic organisms

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Textile dyeing consumes high volumes of water, generating proportional number of colored effluents which contain several hazardous chemical. These contaminants can implicate in significant changes in aquatic environmental, including several adverse effects to organisms in different trophic levels. The present study was developed to assess the ecotoxicological effects of textile effluent samples and reactive Red 239 dye (used in cotton dyeing) to aquatic organisms Vibrio fischeri bacteria, Daphnia similis crustacean, and Biomphalaria glabrata snail (adults and embryos). Chronic assays with lethal and sublethal effects for Daphnia similis were included and performed only for textile effluents samples. The mutagenicity was also evaluated with Salmonella/microsome assay (TA98, TA100, and YG1041 strains). V. fischeri bacteria was the most sensitive to reactive Red 239 dye (EC50 = 10.14 mg L−1) followed by mollusk embryos at all stages (EC50 = 116.41 to 124.14 mg L−1), D. similis (EC50= 389.42 mg L−1), and less sensitive to adult snails (LC50= 517.19 mg L−1). The textile effluent was toxic for all exposed organisms [E(L)C50 < 15%] and B. glabrata embryos showed different responses in the early stages of blastulae and gastrulae (EC50 = 7.60 and 7.08%) compared to advanced development stages trochophore and veliger (EC50 = 21.56 and 29.32%). Developmental and sublethal effects in B. glabrata embryos and D. similis were evidenced. In the chronic assay with effluent, the EC10/NOEC = 3% was obtained. Mutagenic effects were not detected for dye aqueous solutions neither for effluents samples. These data confirmed the importance of evaluating the effects in aquatic organisms from different trophic levels and reinforce the need for environmental aquatic protection.
Garcia VSG, Tallarico LF, Rosa JM, Suzuki CF, Roubicek DA, Nakano E, et al. Multiple adverse effects of textile effluents and reactive Red 239 dye to aquatic organisms. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Nov;28:63202–63214. doi:10.1007/s11356-021-15115-7.
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