The deleterious effects of Shiga toxin type 2 are neutralized in vitro by fabF8:Stx2 recombinant monoclonal antibody

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Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) associated with Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) infections is the principal cause of acute renal injury in pediatric age groups. Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) has in vitro cytotoxic effects on kidney cells, including human glomerular endothelial (HGEC) and Vero cells. Neither a licensed vaccine nor effective therapy for HUS is available for humans. Recombinant antibodies against Stx2, produced in bacteria, appeared as the utmost tool to prevent HUS. Therefore, in this work, a recombinant FabF8:Stx2 was selected from a human Fab antibody library by phage display, characterized, and analyzed for its ability to neutralize the Stx activity from different STEC-Stx2 and Stx1/Stx2 producing strains in a gold standard Vero cell assay, and the Stx2 cytotoxic effects on primary cultures of HGEC. This recombinant Fab showed a dissociation constant of 13.8 nM and a half maximum effective concentration (EC50) of 160 ng/mL to Stx2. Additionally, FabF8:Stx2 neutralized, in different percentages, the cytotoxic effects of Stx2 and Stx1/2 from different STEC strains on Vero cells. Moreover, it significantly prevented the deleterious effects of Stx2 in a dose-dependent manner (up to 83%) in HGEC and protected this cell up to 90% from apoptosis and necrosis. Therefore, this novel and simple anti-Stx2 biomolecule will allow further investigation as a new therapeutic option that could improve STEC and HUS patient outcomes.
Luz D, Gómez FD., Ferreira RL, Melo BS, Guth BE.C., Quintilio W, et al. The deleterious effects of Shiga toxin type 2 are neutralized in vitro by fabF8:Stx2 recombinant monoclonal antibody. Toxins. 2021 Nov;13(11):825. doi:10.3390/toxins13110825.
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