Strenuous swimming raises blood non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity in rats
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The non-enzymatic antioxidant system protects blood components from oxidative damage and/or injury. Herein, plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity after acute strenuous swimming exercise (Exe) and exercise until exhaustion (Exh) was measured in rats. The experiments were carried out in never exposed (Nex) and pre-exposed (Pex) groups. The Nex group did not undergo any previous training before the acute strenuous swimming test and the Pex group was submitted to daily swimming for 10 min in the first week and 15 min per day in the second week before testing. Plasma glucose, lactate, and pyruvate were measured and plasma total protein sulfhydryl groups (thiol), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) levels were evaluated. There were marked increases in plasma lactate concentrations (Nex-Control 1.31±0.20 vs NexExe 4.16±0.39 vs NexExh 7.19±0.67) and in thiol (Nex-Control 271.9±5.6 vs NexExh 314.7±5.7), TEAC (Nex-Control 786.4±60.2 vs NexExh 1027.7±58.2), FRAP (Nex-Control 309.2±17.7 vs NexExh 413.4±24.3), and TRAP (Nex-Control 0.50±0.15 vs NexExh 2.6±0.32) levels after acute swimming and/or exhaustion. Also, there were increased plasma lactate concentrations (Pex-Control 1.39±0.15 vs PexExe 5.22±0.91 vs PexExh 10.07±0.49), thiol (Pex-Control 252.9±8.2 vs PexExh 284.6±6.7), FRAP (Pex-Control 296.5±15.4 vs PexExh 445.7±45.6), and TRAP (Pex-Control 1.8±0.1 vs PexExh 4.6±0.2) levels after acute swimming and/or exhaustion. Lactate showed the highest percent of elevation in the Nex and Pex groups. In conclusion, plasma lactate may contribute to plasma antioxidant defenses, and the TRAP assay is the most sensitive assay for assessing plasma non-antioxidant capacity after strenuous exercise.
Godoy G., Travassos P.B., Antunes M.M., Iwanaga C.C., Sá-Nakanishi A.B, Curi R, et al. Strenuous swimming raises blood non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity in rats. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2022 Feb;55:e11891. doi:10.1590/1414-431X2022e11891.
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