An update on the phylogeny of Spintharinae with analysis based on morphological characters and taxonomy of Janula (Araneae, Theridiidae)

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The present study evaluates the monophyly of Spintharinae with the inclusion of all ten genera listed under subfamily (Brunepisinus; Chrosiothes; Episinus; Janula; Moneta; Neoepisinus; Pycnoepisinus; Spintharus; Stemmops; and Thwaitesia) and establishes the internal relationship among the spintharines genera. We evaluated 107 morphological characters and included 59 species as terminal taxa, 13 of which are outgroups. The phylogenetic analysis under implied weight resulted in three most parsimonious trees with the same topology with six optimal K values (3.349, 4.025, 4.910, 6.117, 7.859, 10.598). The monophyly of the Spintharinae is supported by four synapomorphies, two of these are exclusive. Stemmops was found to be a sister group to the rest of Spintharinae. The genera Spintharus, Thwaitesia, and Chrosiothes constitute a group. A larger group is represented by Brunepisinus, Episinus, Moneta, Neopisinus, and Pycnoepisinus. The other large group includes species of Janula and some species of Episinus. The genus Episinus appears polyphyletic. We described seven new species of the Spintharinae genus Janula from Brazil. Sixteen species are transferred from Episinus to Janula. Males of Janula malachina and J. teresopolis are described for the first time. Episinus rio is synonymized with Janula bicorniger. We present new illustrations of the male and female of Janula nebulosa and J. salobrensis. The species Janula bicruciata and J. nebulosa are recorded for the first time from Bolivia and other new records are provided for the known species. Episinus albostriatus is transferred to Chrosiothes.
Rodrigues ENL, Rodrigues PE.S., Brescovit AD, Koh JK.H.. An update on the phylogeny of Spintharinae with analysis based on morphological characters and taxonomy of Janula (Araneae, Theridiidae). Org. Divers. Evol. 2022 Mar; 22:749-787. doi:10.1007/s13127-022-00547-x.
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