Diverse lineages of pathogenic Leptospira species are widespread in the environment in Puerto Rico, USA

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dc.contributorLab. de Desenvolvimento de Vacinaspt_BR
dc.contributor.authorStone, Nathan E.pt_BR
dc.contributor.authorHall, Carina M.pt_BR
dc.contributor.authorOrtiz, Marielisapt_BR
dc.contributor.authorHutton, Shelbypt_BR
dc.contributor.authorSantana-Propper, Ellapt_BR
dc.contributor.authorCelona, Kimberly R.pt_BR
dc.contributor.authorWilliamson, Charles H. D.pt_BR
dc.contributor.authorNicole Bratschpt_BR
dc.contributor.authorFernandes, Luis Guilherme Vírgíliopt_BR
dc.contributor.authorJoseph D. Buschpt_BR
dc.contributor.authorTalima Pearsonpt_BR
dc.contributor.authorRivera-Garcia, Saraipt_BR
dc.contributor.authorGalloway, Fredpt_BR
dc.contributor.authorGalloway, Reneept_BR
dc.contributor.authorSahl, Jason W.pt_BR
dc.contributor.authorNally, Jarlath E.pt_BR
dc.contributor.authorWagne, David M.pt_BR
dc.date.accessioned2022-05-20T13:24:42Z-
dc.date.available2022-05-20T13:24:42Z-
dc.date.issued2022pt_BR
dc.identifier.citationStone NE., Hall CM., Ortiz M, Hutton S, Santana-Propper E, Celona KR., et al. Diverse lineages of pathogenic Leptospira species are widespread in the environment in Puerto Rico, USA. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2022 May; 16(5):e0009959. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0009959.pt_BR
dc.identifier.urihttps://repositorio.butantan.gov.br/handle/butantan/4351-
dc.description.abstractBackground Leptospirosis, caused by Leptospira bacteria, is a common zoonosis worldwide, especially in the tropics. Reservoir species and risk factors have been identified but surveys for environmental sources are rare. Furthermore, understanding of environmental Leptospira containing virulence associated genes and possibly capable of causing disease is incomplete, which may convolute leptospirosis diagnosis, prevention, and epidemiology. Methodology/Principal findings We collected environmental samples from 22 sites in Puerto Rico during three sampling periods over 14-months (Dec 2018-Feb 2020); 10 water and 10 soil samples were collected at each site. Samples were screened for DNA from potentially pathogenic Leptospira using the lipL32 PCR assay and positive samples were sequenced to assess genetic diversity. One urban site in San Juan was sampled three times over 14 months to assess persistence in soil; live leptospires were obtained during the last sampling period. Isolates were whole genome sequenced and LipL32 expression was assessed in vitro. We detected pathogenic Leptospira DNA at 15/22 sites; both soil and water were positive at 5/15 sites. We recovered lipL32 sequences from 83/86 positive samples (15/15 positive sites) and secY sequences from 32/86 (10/15 sites); multiple genotypes were identified at 12 sites. These sequences revealed significant diversity across samples, including four novel lipL32 phylogenetic clades within the pathogenic P1 group. Most samples from the serially sampled site were lipL32 positive at each time point. We sequenced the genomes of six saprophytic and two pathogenic Leptospira isolates; the latter represent a novel pathogenic Leptospira species likely belonging to a new serogroup. Conclusions/Significance Diverse and novel pathogenic Leptospira are widespread in the environment in Puerto Rico. The disease potential of these lineages is unknown but several were consistently detected for >1 year in soil, which could contaminate water. This work increases understanding of environmental Leptospira diversity and should improve leptospirosis surveillance and diagnostics.pt_BR
dc.format.extente0009959pt_BR
dc.language.isoEnglishpt_BR
dc.relation.ispartofPlos Neglected Tropical Diseasespt_BR
dc.rightsOpen accesspt_BR
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/pt_BR
dc.titleDiverse lineages of pathogenic Leptospira species are widespread in the environment in Puerto Rico, USApt_BR
dc.typeArticlept_BR
dc.rights.licenseCC0pt_BR
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pntd.0009959pt_BR
dc.identifier.urlhttps://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009959pt_BR
dc.contributor.external(NAU) Northern Arizona Universitypt_BR
dc.contributor.externalNational Animal Disease Centerpt_BR
dc.contributor.externalCenters for Disease Control and Preventionpt_BR
dc.contributor.external(USDA) United States Department of Agriculturept_BR
dc.identifier.citationvolume16pt_BR
dc.identifier.citationissue5pt_BR
dc.relation.ispartofabbreviatedPLoS Negl Trop Dispt_BR
dc.identifier.citationabntv. 16, n. 5, e0009959, mai, 2022pt_BR
dc.identifier.citationvancouver2022 May; 16(5):e0009959pt_BR
dc.contributor.butantanFernandes, Luis Guilherme Vírgílio|:Técnico|:Lab. de Desenvolvimento de Vacinaspt_BR
dc.identifier.bvsccBR78.1pt_BR
dc.identifier.bvsdbIBProdpt_BR
dc.description.dbindexedYespt_BR
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