The severity of acute kidney injury correlates with plasma venom levels in Bothrops atrox envenomings

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The Brazilian Amazon has high rates of snakebite envenomings (SBEs), with ∼90% caused by Bothrops atrox. Envenomings by this species can trigger local and systemic effects, such as acute kidney injury (AKI). Our aim was to identify predictors of AKI in Bothrops SBEs in patients from Manaus, Western Brazilian Amazon. A total of 127 patients were enrolled, with a predominance of men between 16 and 45 years old from rural areas. Of the 127 patients, 38.6% developed AKI, with 61.2% presenting stage I, 34.7% presenting stage II and 4.1% presenting stage III severity. The age groups 0–10 years and ≥60 years presented a significantly higher frequency of AKI compared to the 11–40 years group. Moderate/severe edema in the affeccted limb was significantly associated with lower risk of AKI [p = 0.01; OR = 0.11 (95%CI 0.02–0.53)]. Nausea [p = 0.01; OR = 54.44 (95%CI = 3.26–909.27)] and high blood urea levels [p = 0.01; OR = 5.38 (95%CI = 2.12–13.66)] were risk factors for AKI. There was a significant positive correlation between circulating venom levels and the highest creatinine serum values during the hospital stay (p = 0.03) and with the difference between the maximum creatinine levels and the creatinine levels on admission (p = 0.02). A positive correlation between serum venom concentrations and creatinine levels suggests a direct or indirect dose-dependent participation of the venom toxins in the pathogenesis of AKI.
Brasileiro-Martins LM, Nascimento TP, Silva-Neto AV, Colombini M, Fan HW, Moura-da-Silva AM. The severity of acute kidney injury correlates with plasma venom levels in Bothrops atrox envenomings. Toxicon. 2022 Nov; 219: 106924. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2022.09.010.
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