Impact of sleep restriction in B-1 cells activation and differentiation

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B-1 lymphocytes are a subtype of B cells with functional and phenotypic features that differ from conventional B lymphocytes. These cells are mainly located in mice’s pleural and peritoneal cavities and express unconventional B cell surface markers. B-1 cells participate in immunity by producing antibodies, cytokines, and chemokines and physically interacting with other immune cells. In addition, B-1 cells can differentiate into mononuclear phagocyte-like cells and phagocytize several pathogens. However, the activation and differentiation of B-1 cells are not entirely understood. It is known that several factors can influence B-1 cells, such as pathogens components and the immune response. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of chronic stress on B-1 cell activation and differentiation into phagocytes. The experimental sleep restriction was used as a stress model since the sleep alteration alters several immune cells' functions. Thus, mice were submitted to sleep restriction for 21 consecutive days, and the activation and differentiation of B-1 cells were analyzed. Our results demonstrated that B-1 cells initiated the differentiation process into mononuclear phagocytes after the period of sleep restriction. In addition, we detected a significant decrease in lymphoid lineage commitment factors (EBF, E2A, Blnk) (*P < 0.05) and an increase in the G-CSFR gene (related to the myeloid lineage commitment factor) (****P < 0.0001), as compared to control mice no submitted to sleep restriction. An increase in the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 (**P < 0.01 and *P < 0.05, respectively) and a higher production of nitric oxide (NO) (*P < 0.05) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (*P < 0.05) were also observed in B-1 cells from mice submitted to sleep restriction. Nevertheless, B-1 cells from sleep-restricted mice showed a significant reduction in the Toll-like receptors (TLR)-2, −6, and −9, and interleukine-10 (IL-10) cytokine expression (***P < 0.001) as compared to control. Sleep-restricted mice intraperitoneally infected with L. amazonensis promastigotes showed a reduction in the average internalized parasites (*P < 0.05) by B-1 cells. These findings suggest that sleep restriction interferes with B-1 lymphocyte activation and differentiation. In addition, b-1 cells assumed a more myeloid profile but with a lower phagocytic capacity in this stress condition.
Vidal AS, Reis NFC, Lorenzo BHPD, Alvares-Saraiva AM, Xander P, Brito RRN. Impact of sleep restriction in B-1 cells activation and differentiation. Immunobiology. 2022 Nov; 227(6):152280. doi:10.1016/j.imbio.2022.152280.
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