Duchenne muscular dystrophy progression induced by downhill running is accompanied by increased endomysial fibrosis and oxidative damage DNA in muscle of mdx mice
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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by progressive muscle necrosis. One of the major challenges for prescribing physical rehabilitation exercises for DMD patients is associated with the lack of a thorough knowledge of dystrophic muscle responsiveness to exercise. This study aims to understand the relationship between myogenic regulation, inflammation and oxidative stress parameters, and disease progression induced by downhill running in the skeletal muscle of an experimental model of DMD. Six-month-old C57BL/10 and C57BL/10-DMDmdx male mice were distributed into three groups: Control (C), mdx, and mdx + Exercise (mdx + Ex). Animals were trained in a downhill running protocol for seven weeks. The gastrocnemius muscle was subjected to histopathology, muscle regeneration (myoD and myogenin), inflammation (COX-2), oxidative stress (8-OHdG) immunohistochemistry markers, and gene expression (qPCR) of NF-kB and NADP(H)Oxidase 2 (NOX-2) analysis. In the mdx + Ex group, the gastrocnemius muscle showed a higher incidence of endomysial fibrosis and a lower myonecrosis percentage area. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed decreased myogenin immunoexpression in the mdx group, as well as accentuated immunoexpression of nuclear 8-OHdG in both mdx groups and increase in cytoplasmic 8-OHdG only in the mdx + Ex. COX-2 immunoexpression was related to areas of regeneration process and inflammatory infiltrate in the mdx group, while associated with areas of muscle fibrosis in the mdx + Ex. Moreover, the NF-kB gene expression was not influenced by exercise; however, a NAD(P)HOxidase 2 increase was observed. Oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage play a significant role in the DMD phenotype progression induced by exercise, compromising cellular patterns resulting in increased endomysial fibrosis.
Lazzarin MC, Santos JF, Quintanal HT, Pidone FAM, Oliveira F. Duchenne muscular dystrophy progression induced by downhill running is accompanied by increased endomysial fibrosis and oxidative damage DNA in muscle of mdx mice. J Mol Histol. 2022 Nov; 54:41-54. doi:10.1007/s10735-022-10109-2.
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