Mouse skin peptidomic analysis of the hemorrhage induced by a snake venom metalloprotease

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Hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) results from proteolysis, capillary disruption, and blood extravasation. HF3, a potent SVMP of Bothrops jararaca, induces hemorrhage at pmol doses in the mouse skin. To gain insight into the hemorrhagic process, the main goal of this study was to analyze changes in the skin peptidome generated by injection of HF3, using approaches of mass spectrometry-based untargeted peptidomics. The results revealed that the sets of peptides found in the control and HF3-treated skin samples were distinct and derived from the cleavage of different proteins. Peptide bond cleavage site identification in the HF3-treated skin showed compatibility with trypsin-like serine proteases and cathepsins, suggesting the activation of host proteinases. Acetylated peptides, which originated from the cleavage at positions in the N-terminal region of proteins in both samples, were identified for the first time in the mouse skin peptidome. The number of peptides acetylated at the residue after the first Met residue, mostly Ser and Ala, was higher than that of peptides acetylated at the initial Met. Proteins cleaved in the hemorrhagic skin participate in cholesterol metabolism, PPAR signaling, and in the complement and coagulation cascades, indicating the impairment of these biological processes. The peptidomic analysis also indicated the emergence of peptides with potential biological activities, including pheromone, cell penetrating, quorum sensing, defense, and cell–cell communication in the mouse skin. Interestingly, peptides generated in the hemorrhagic skin promoted the inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation and could act synergistically in the local tissue damage induced by HF3.
Asega AF, Barros BCSC, Chaves AFA, Oliveira AK, Nasciben LB, Kitano ES, et al. Mouse skin peptidomic analysis of the hemorrhage induced by a snake venom metalloprotease. Amino Acids. 2023 Jun; 55:1103-1119. doi:10.1007/s00726-023-03299-w.
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