4-Hydroxynonenal impairs miRNA maturation in heart failure via Dicer post-translational modification

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Background and Aims Developing novel therapies to battle the global public health burden of heart failure remains challenging. This study investigates the underlying mechanisms and potential treatment for 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) deleterious effects in heart failure. Methods Biochemical, functional, and histochemical measurements were applied to identify 4-HNE adducts in rat and human failing hearts. In vitro studies were performed to validate 4-HNE targets. Results 4-HNE, a reactive aldehyde by-product of mitochondrial dysfunction in heart failure, covalently inhibits Dicer, an RNase III endonuclease essential for microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. 4-HNE inhibition of Dicer impairs miRNA processing. Mechanistically, 4-HNE binds to recombinant human Dicer through an intermolecular interaction that disrupts both activity and stability of Dicer in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Dithiothreitol neutralization of 4-HNE or replacing 4-HNE-targeted residues in Dicer prevents 4-HNE inhibition of Dicer in vitro. Interestingly, end-stage human failing hearts from three different heart failure aetiologies display defective 4-HNE clearance, decreased Dicer activity, and miRNA biogenesis impairment. Notably, boosting 4-HNE clearance through pharmacological re-activation of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) using Alda-1 or its improved orally bioavailable derivative AD-9308 restores Dicer activity. ALDH2 is a major enzyme responsible for 4-HNE removal. Importantly, this response is accompanied by improved miRNA maturation and cardiac function/remodelling in a pre-clinical model of heart failure. Conclusions 4-HNE inhibition of Dicer directly impairs miRNA biogenesis in heart failure. Strikingly, decreasing cardiac 4-HNE levels through pharmacological ALDH2 activation is sufficient to re-establish Dicer activity and miRNA biogenesis; thereby representing potential treatment for patients with heart failure.
Kiyuna LA., Candido DS., Bechara LR.G., Zambelli VO. 4-Hydroxynonenal impairs miRNA maturation in heart failure via Dicer post-translational modification. Eur Heart J. 2023 Nov; ehad662. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehad662.
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