The interaction between the host genome, epigenome, and the gut-skin axis microbiome in atopic dermatitis
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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. It involves complex interactions among the host immune system, environmental factors (such as skin barrier dysfunction), and microbial dysbiosis. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified AD risk alleles; however, the associated environmental factors remain largely unknown. Recent evidence suggests that altered microbiota composition (dysbiosis) in the skin and gut may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. Examples of environmental factors that contribute to skin barrier dysfunction and microbial dysbiosis in AD include allergens, irritants, pollution, and microbial exposure. Studies have reported alterations in the gut microbiome structure in patients with AD compared to control subjects, characterized by increased abundance of Clostridium difficile and decreased abundance of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria such as Bifidobacterium. SCFAs play a critical role in maintaining host health, and reduced SCFA production may lead to intestinal inflammation in AD patients. The specific mechanisms through which dysbiotic bacteria and their metabolites interact with the host genome and epigenome to cause autoimmunity in AD are still unknown. By understanding the combination of environmental factors, such as gut microbiota, the genetic and epigenetic determinants that are associated with the development of autoantibodies may help unravel the pathophysiology of the disease. This review aims to elucidate the interactions between the immune system, susceptibility genes, epigenetic factors, and the gut microbiome in the development of AD.
Pessôa R, Clissa PB, Sanabani SS. The interaction between the host genome, epigenome, and the gut-skin axis microbiome in atopic dermatitis. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Sep; 24(18):14322. doi:10.3390/ijms241814322.
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