Changes in skeletal muscle protein metabolism signaling induced by glutamine supplementation and esxercise

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Aim: To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training (RET) and/or glutamine supplementation (GS) on signaling protein synthesis in adult rat skeletal muscles. Methods: The following groups were studied: (1) control, no exercise (C); (2) exercise, hypertrophy resistance exercise training protocol (T); (3) no exercise, supplemented with glutamine (G); and (4) exercise and supplemented with glutamine (GT). The rats performed hypertrophic training, climbing a vertical ladder with a height of 1.1 m at an 80° incline relative to the horizontal with extra weights tied to their tails. The RET was performed three days a week for five weeks. Each training session consisted of six ladder climbs. The extra weight load was progressively increased for each animal during each training session. The G groups received daily L-glutamine by gavage (one g per kilogram of body weight per day) for five weeks. The C group received the same volume of water during the same period. The rats were euthanized, and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from both hind limbs were removed and immediately weighed. Glutamine and glutamate concentrations were measured, and histological, signaling protein contents, and mRNA expression analyses were performed. Results: Supplementation with free L-glutamine increased the glutamine concentration in the EDL muscle in the C group. The glutamate concentration was augmented in the EDL muscles from T rats. The EDL muscle mass did not change, but a significant rise was reported in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the fibers in the three experimental groups. The levels of the phosphorylated proteins (pAkt/Akt, pp70S6K/p70S6K, p4E-BP1/4E-BP1, and pS6/S6 ratios) were significantly increased in EDL muscles of G rats, and the activation of p4E-BP1 was present in T rats. The fiber CSAs of the EDL muscles in T, G, and GT rats were increased compared to the C group. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in the 26 proteasome activity of EDL muscles from T rats. Conclusion: Five weeks of GS and/or RET induced muscle hypertrophy, as indicated by the increased CSAs of the EDL muscle fibers. The increase in CSA was mediated via the upregulated phosphorylation of Akt, 4E-BP1, p70S6k, and S6 in G animals and 4E-BP1 in T animals. In the EDL muscles from T animals, a decrease in proteasome activity, favoring a further increase in the CSA of the muscle fibers, was reported.
Junior CFR, Murata GM, Romero FG, Nachbar RT, Nassr GNM, Gorjão R, et al. Changes in skeletal muscle protein metabolism signaling induced by glutamine supplementation and esxercise. Nutrients. 2023, Nov; 15, 22: 4711. doi:10.3390/nu15224711.
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