Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Lasiodora C. L. Koch, 1850 (Araneae, Theraphosidae) with notes on related genera

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The genus Lasiodora C. L. Koch, 1850 is revised and morphological cladistic analyses carried out including all of its species, as well as most of those of the related genera Vitalius Lucas, Silva & Bertani, 1993, Nhandu Lucas, 1983, Pterinopelma Pocock, 1901, Proshapalopus Mello-Leitão, 1923, Eupalaestrus Pocock, 1901, Lasiocyano Galleti-Lima, Hamilton, Borges & Guadanucci, 2023, Parvicarina Galleti-Lima, Hamilton, Borges & Guadanucci, 2023, and Tekoapora Galleti-Lima, Hamilton, Borges & Guadanucci, 2023. A matrix with 50 terminal taxa, 2 continuous and 48 discrete characters was analyzed with TNT 1.5. The result shows a monophyletic Lasiodora as sister group of Nhandu, and Vitalius is the sister group of this clade. Lasiodora comprises 7 species: Lasiodora klugi (C. L. Koch, 1841) (type species), L. benedeni Bertkau, 1880, L. parahybana Mello-Leitão, 1917, L. subcanens Mello-Leitão, 1921, L. camurujipe n. sp., L. sertaneja n. sp., and L. franciscana n. sp. Lasiodora itabunae Mello-Leitão, 1921 is considered a junior synonym of L. klugi. Lasiodora differens Chamberlin, 1917, L. curtior Chamberlin, 1917, L. mariannae Mello-Leitão, 1921, L. difficilis Mello-Leitão, 1921, L. erythrocythara Mello-Leitão, 1921, and Acanthoscurria cristata Mello-Leitão, 1923 are considered junior synonyms of L. benedeni. Lasiodora acanthognatha Mello-Leitão, 1921 is considered junior synonym of L. parahybana. Lasiodora dulcicola Mello-Leitão, 1921 is considered junior synonym of L. subcanens. Nhandu sylviae Sherwood, Gabriel & Brescovit, 2023 is considered junior synonym of Vitalius sorocabae Mello-Leitão, 1923. The holotype of Crypsidromus isabellinus Ausserer, 1871 (type species of the genus) was reanalyzed and is considered the senior synonym of Proshapalopus anomalus Mello-Leitão, 1923 (type species of the genus). Thus, the genus Crypsidromus Ausserer, 1871 is considered valid, removed from the synonymy with Lasiodora, and Proshapalopus is considered a junior synonym of Crypsidromus. The new combination C. multicuspidatus (Mello-Leitão, 1929) n. comb. is established. Crypsidromus bolivianus Simon, 1892 is considered a junior synonym of Acanthoscurria insubtilis Simon, 1892. Five species from Costa Rica described in Crypsidromus are transferred back from Lasiodora: Crypsidromus brevibulbus Valerio, 1980 comb. rev., C. carinatus Valerio, 1980 comb. rev., C. icecu Valerio, 1980 comb. rev., C. puriscal Valerio, 1980 comb. rev., C. rubitarsus Valerio, 1980 comb. rev. Lasiodora lakoi Mello-Leitão, 1943 is transferred to Megaphobema, making the new combination Megaphobema lakoi (Mello-Leitão, 1943) n. comb. Lasiodora spinipes Ausserer, 1871 is transferred to Theraphosa, making the new combination Theraphosa spinipes (Ausserer, 1871) n. comb. Nhandu chromatus Schmidt, 2004 is transferred to Vitalius making the new combination Vitalius chromatus (Schmidt, 2004) n. comb. Lasiodora sternalis is transferred to Acanthoscurria making the new combination Acanthoscurria sternalis (Mello-Leitão, 1923). Due to the homonymy with Acanthoscurria sternalis Pocock, 1903, the new name Acanthoscurria melloleitaoi nom. nov. is proposed. The following species are considered nomina dubia: Lasiodora saeva (Walckenaer, 1837), Lasiodora striatipes (Ausserer, 1871), Lasiodora moreni (Holmberg, 1876), Crypsidromus fallax Bertkau, 1880, Trechona pantherina Keyserling, 1891, Lasiodora bahiensis Strand, 1907, Lasiodora citharacantha Mello-Leitão, 1921, Lasiodora cryptostigma Mello-Leitão, 1921, Lasiodora dolichosterna Mello-Leitão, 1921, Lasiodora fracta Mello-Leitão, 1921, and Lasiodora pleoplectra Mello-Leitão, 1921. A discussion on the relationship of Lasiodora, Nhandu, Vitalius, Pterinopelma and Crypsidromus as well maps with the distributions of all Lasiodora species are provided.
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