First report of amelanism in the Bushmaster, Lachesis muta (Linnaeus, 1766) (Squamata: Viperidae)

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Snake venom phospholipases are secreted PLA2s (sPLA2s) that are divided into two major groups, group I and group II, which are present in the secretions of the venom glands of Elapidae and Viperidae snake families, respectively. Snake venom sPLA2 (svPLA2) enzymes exhibit a variety of pharmacological effects, including myotoxicity and neurotoxicity. These effects lead to paralysis, asphyxia, and death due to the damage of the neuromuscular transmission at the pre- or postsynaptic sites and pronounced muscle necrosis. Widespread muscle damage, with consequent massive release of creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobinuria, is often associated with kidney alterations. In this chapter, we overviewed the mechanisms involved in svPLA2-induced myotoxicity and neurotoxicity.
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