Impaired expression of CXCL5 and matrix metalloproteinases in the lungs of mice with high susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection

Introduction: Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx of healthy individuals establishing a commensal relationship with the host. In some conditions, bacteria invade the lower respiratory tract and innate immune responses are crucial to avoid diseases such as pneumonia, sepsis, or meningitis. Methods: Here, we compared the susceptibility to pneumococcal respiratory infection of two outbred mouse lines, AIRmin and AIRmax, selected for low or high acute inflammatory responses, respectively. Results: AIRmin mice showed increased susceptibility to infection with different pneumococcal serotypes, when compared to AIRmax. Significant higher numbers of alveolar macrophages expressing the CD206 mannose receptor were observed in AIRmin mice when compared to AIRmax mice. Despite this difference, secretion of several cytokines and chemokines in the respiratory tract of AIRmin and AIRmax mice, after infection, was similar. The only exception was CXCL5, which was highly induced after pneumococcal infection in AIRmax mice but not in AIRmin mice. Reduced expression of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2, 3, 8, and 9, as well as reduced activities of MMPs were also observed in the lungs of AIRmin mice, after infection. Such impaired responses may have contributed to the low influx of neutrophils observed in the airways of these mice. Finally, high percentages of macrophages and neutrophils in apoptosis or necrosis, at the site of infection, were also observed in AIRmin mice, suggesting that leukocyte functionality is also compromised. Conclusions: Our results indicate that CXCL5 and MMPs contribute to the resistance to pneumococcal infection in mice.
Keywords
inflammation;  innate immunity;  respiratory;  Streptococcus pneumoniae

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Mancuso RI, Miyaji EN, Silva CCF, Portaro FCV, Schanoski AS, Ribeiro OG, et al. Impaired expression of CXCL5 and matrix metalloproteinases in the lungs of mice with high susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Immun Inflamm Dis. 2018 Mar;6(1):128-42. doi:10.1002/iid3.205.
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