The potential of Loxosceles gaucho spider venom to regulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa mechanisms of virulence

Loxosceles venom is a potential source of bioactive molecules which may be transformed into antimicrobial products against multi-resistant bacteria. Here, it was investigated whether Loxosceles gaucho spider had any influence on the proliferation, enzyme release and biofilm formation of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain resistant to two different classes of antibiotic. The results demonstrated that L. gaucho whole venom has no influence on P. aeruginosa proliferation. However, it increases P. aeruginosa production of gelatinase, caseinase and biofilm formation. The same effects were noted when P. aeruginosa was exposed to a L. gaucho venom molecular fraction with mass lower than 1 kDa. Separation of this molecular fraction into different subsets by RP-HPLC demonstrated that, among the molecules with the ability to increase the production of enzymes and biofilm formation, there are some with antimicrobial activities whose effects are not observed in the whole venom. In summary, the results obtained herein indicate that L. gaucho venom has a variety of low molecular mass bioactive components that influence the mechanisms of virulence of P. aeruginosa in different ways.
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Loxosceles gaucho;  Pseudomonas aeruginosa;  Biofilm;  Bacterial proliferation;  Caseinase;  Gelatinase

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Domingos MO, Neves IV, Vigerelli H, Pimenta DC, Távora BCLF, Lemos TJS, et al. The potential of Loxosceles gaucho spider venom to regulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa mechanisms of virulence. Toxicon. 2018 Sep;152:78-83. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.07.017.
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