Crotoxin-treated macrophages stimulate ROS production and killing activity in co-cultured neutrophils
Crotoxin (CTX), the predominant toxin in Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom (CdtV), has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Despite its inhibitory action on neutrophil migration and phagocytosis, CTX does not directly affect the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the neutrophils. In contrast, it enhances the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates by macrophages. Given the importance of macrophage-neutrophil interactions in innate antimicrobial defense, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CTX on neutrophil ROS production and killing activity, either through CTX-treated macrophage co-culture or conditioned medium of CTX-treated macrophages. The results showed an important modulatory action of CTX on the neutrophil function as well as neutrophil-macrophage interactions, as demonstrated by the increased production of hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, nitric oxide and TNF- a , along with the increased fungicidal activity of neutrophils.
Crotoxin; Macrophages; Neutrophils; Inflammation; ATP; Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; Cytokines; Co-culture model
de Oliveira RBB, Kato EE, Cirillo MC, Lima TS, Alba-Loureiro TC, Curi R, et al. Crotoxin-treated macrophages stimulate ROS production and killing activity in co-cultured neutrophils. J. Appl. Microb. Res.. 2018;1(1):55-65. doi:https://repositorio.butantan.gov.br/handle/butantan/2604.
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