Mild exercise differently affects proteostasis and oxidative stress on motor areas during neurodegeneration: a comparative study of three treadmill running protocols

Proteostasis and oxidative stress were evaluated in motor cortex and spinal cord of aged Lewis rats exposed to 1mg/kg/day of rotenone during 4 or 8weeks, prior or after practicing three protocols of mild treadmill running. Results demonstrated that exercise done after the beginning of neurodegeneration reverted the increased oxidative stress (measured by H2O2 levels and SOD activity), increased neuron strength, and improved proteostasis in motor cortex. Spinal cord was not affected. Treadmill running practiced before neurodegeneration protected cortical motor neurons of the rotenone-exposed rats; but in this case, oxidative stress was not altered, whereas proteasome activity was increased and autophagy decreased. Spinal cord was not protected when exercise was practiced before neurodegeneration. Prolonged treadmill running (10weeks) increased oxidative stress, autophagy, and proteasome activity, whereas neuron viability was decreased in motor cortex. In spinal cord, this protocol decreased oxidative stress and increased proteasome activity. Major conclusions were that treadmill running practiced before or after the beginning of neurodegeneration may protect motor cortex neurons, whereas prolonged mild running seems to be beneficial for spinal cord.
Keywords
Spinal cord;  Motor cortex;  Autophagy;  Rotenone;  Physical exercise;  Proteasome

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Melo KP., Silva CM., Almeida MF., Chaves RS., Marcourakis T, Cardoso SM., et al. Mild exercise differently affects proteostasis and oxidative stress on motor areas during neurodegeneration: a comparative study of three treadmill running protocols. Neurotox. Res.. 2019 Feb;35(2):410-420. doi:10.1007/s12640-018-9966-3.
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