Inflammatory reaction induced by two metalloproteinases isolated from bothrops atrox venom and by fragments generated from the hydrolysis of basement membrane components

Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) play an important role in local tissue damage of snakebite patients, mostly by hydrolysis of basement membrane (BM) components. We evaluated the proinflammatory activity of SVMPs Atroxlysin-Ia (ATXL) and Batroxrhagin (BATXH) from Bothrops atrox venom and their hydrolysis products of Matrigel. BALB/c mice were injected with SVMPs (2 µg), for assessment of paw edema and peritoneal leukocyte accumulation. Both SVMPs induced edema, representing an increase of ~70% of the paw size. Leukocyte infiltrates reached levels of 6 × 106 with ATXL and 5 × 106 with BATXH. TNF-a was identified in the supernatant of BATXH—or venom-stimulated MPAC cells. Incubation of Matrigel with the SVMPs generated fragments, including peptides from Laminin, identified by LC–MS/MS. The Matrigel hydrolysis peptides caused edema that increased 30% the paw size and promoted leukocyte accumulation (4–5 × 106) to the peritoneal cavity, significantly higher than Matrigel control peptides 1 and 4 h after injection. Our findings suggest that ATXL and BATXH are involved in the inflammatory reaction observed in B. atrox envenomings by direct action on inflammatory cells or by releasing proinflammatory peptides from BM proteins that may amplify the direct action of SVMPs through activation of endogenous signaling pathways
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Bothrops atrox;  SVMPs;  metalloproteinases;  basal membrane;  hydrolysis;  peptides;  inflammation

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Almeida MT, Freitas-de-Sousa LA, Colombini M, Gimenes SNC, Kitano ES, Faquim Mauro EL, et al. Inflammatory reaction induced by two metalloproteinases isolated from bothrops atrox venom and by fragments generated from the hydrolysis of basement membrane components. Toxins. 2020 Feb;12(2):96. doi:10.3390/toxins12020096.
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