The interplay between host haemostatic systems and Leptospira spp. infections

Hemostasis is a defence mechanism that protects the integrity of the vascular system and is comprised of the coagulation cascade, fibrinolysis, platelet aggregation, and vascular endothelium. Besides the primary function in preserving the vascular integrity, the haemostatic system cooperates with immune and inflammatory processes to eliminate invading pathogens during microbial infections. Under pathological manifestations, hemostasis must therefore interact in a coordinated manner with inflammatory responses and immune reactions. Several pathogens can modulate these host-derived countermeasures by specifically targeting certain haemostatic components for their own benefit. Thus, the ability to modulate host defence systems has to be considered as an essential bacterial virulence mechanism. Complications that bacterial pathogens can induce are therefore often the consequence of evoked host responses. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered in infectious processes may help to develop prophylactic methods and novel therapies for the patients suffering from a particular infectious disease. This review aims to provide a critical updated compiling of recent studies on how the pathogenic Leptospira can interact with and manipulate the host haemostatic systems and the consequences for leptospirosis pathogenesis.
Keywords
Leptospirosis;  host–pathogen interactions;  hemostasis;  infectious diseases;  coagulation

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Vieira ML, Herwald H, Nascimento ALTO. The interplay between host haemostatic systems and Leptospira spp. infections. Crit. Rev. Microbiol.. 2020 Mar;46(2):121–135. doi:10.1080/1040841X.2020.1735299.
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