Comparison between placental and skeletal muscle ECM: in vivo implantation

Purpose of the study: Several tissues have been decellularized and their extracellular matrices used as allogeneic or xenogeneic scaffolds, either in orthotopic or heterotopic implantations, for tissue engineering purposes. Placentas have abundant matrix, extensive microvascular structure, immunomodulatory properties, growth factors and are discarded after birth, representing an interesting source of extracellular matrix. This study aimed at comparing decellularized canine placentas and murine skeletal muscles to regenerate skeletal muscles in a rat model. Materials and Methods: Muscle pockets were created at the posterior limbs of male Wistar rats, where the muscle- and placenta-derived extracellular matrices were implanted. Macroscopic, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed after 3, 15, and 45 days of surgeries. Results: On the third day, intense inflammatory reaction, with macrophages (CD163+) and proliferative cells (PCNA+) being observed in control group and adjacent to the decellularized matrices. The percentage of proliferative cells was higher in placenta than in muscle matrices. Macrophages CD163+ high were higher in muscles than in placentas, whereas CD163+ low were higher in placentas than in muscle ECM, at days 3 and 15. Placental matrices were not completely degraded at day 15, as opposed to the muscular ones. After 45 days, both matrices were resorbed and morphologically normal myofibers, with reduction of cell infiltration, were observed. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that xenogeneic placental ECM, implanted heterotopically (representing a biologically critical and challenging microenvironment), induced local inflammatory reactions similar to the allogeneic muscle ECM, implanted orthotopically. Thus, placenta-derived extracellular matrix must be further explored in regenerative medicine.
Keywords
Decellularization;  placenta;  skeletal muscle;  extracellular matrix;  regeneration

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Carvalho CMF, Leonel LC.P.C., Cañada RR., Barreto RS.N., Maria DA, Sol MD, et al. Comparison between placental and skeletal muscle ECM: in vivo implantation. Connect. Tissue Res.. 2020 Oct;in press. doi:10.1080/03008207.2020.1834540.
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