A Representative GIIA phospholipase A2 activates preadipocytes to produce inflammatory mediators implicated in obesity development

Adipose tissue secretes proinflammatory mediators which promote systemic and adipose tissue inflammation seen in obesity. Group IIA (GIIA)-secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzymes are found to be elevated in plasma and adipose tissue from obese patients and are active during inflammation, generating proinflammatory mediators, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). PGE2 exerts anti-lipolytic actions and increases triacylglycerol levels in adipose tissue. However, the inflammatory actions of GIIA sPLA2s in adipose tissue cells and mechanisms leading to increased PGE2 levels in these cells are unclear. This study investigates the ability of a representative GIIA sPLA2, MT-III, to activate proinflammatory responses in preadipocytes, focusing on the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, adipocytokines and mechanisms involved in these effects. Our results showed that MT-III induced biosynthesis of PGE2, PGI2, MCP-1, IL-6 and gene expression of leptin and adiponectin in preadipocytes. The MT-III-induced PGE2 biosynthesis was dependent on cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2)-α, cyclooxygenases (COX)-1 and COX-2 pathways and regulated by a positive loop via the EP4 receptor. Moreover, MT-III upregulated COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin synthase (mPGES)-1 protein expression. MCP-1 biosynthesis induced by MT-III was dependent on the EP4 receptor, while IL-6 biosynthesis was dependent on EP3 receptor engagement by PGE2. These data highlight preadipocytes as targets for GIIA sPLA2s and provide insight into the roles played by this group of sPLA2s in obesity.
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phospholipase A2;  preadipocytes;  prostaglandins;  adipokines;  cytokines;  EP receptors

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Leiguez Junior E, Motta PS, Marques RM, Lomonte B, Sampaio SV, Teixeira C. A Representative GIIA phospholipase A2 activates preadipocytes to produce inflammatory mediators implicated in obesity development. Biomolecules. 2020 Nov;10(12):1593. doi:10.3390/biom10121593.
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