Primary and memory response of human monocytes to vaccines: role of nanoparticulate antigens in inducing innate memory
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Innate immune cells such as monocytes and macrophages are activated in response to microbial and other challenges and mount an inflammatory defensive response. Exposed cells develop the so-called innate memory, which allows them to react differently to a subsequent challenge, aiming at better protection. In this study, using human primary monocytes in vitro, we have assessed the memory-inducing capacity of two antigenic molecules of Schistosoma mansoni in soluble form compared to the same molecules coupled to outer membrane vesicles of Neisseria lactamica. The results show that particulate challenges are much more efficient than soluble molecules in inducing innate memory, which is measured as the production of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-6, IL-10). Controls run with LPS from Klebsiella pneumoniae compared to the whole bacteria show that while LPS alone has strong memory-inducing capacity, the entire bacteria are more efficient. These data suggest that microbial antigens that are unable to induce innate immune activation can nevertheless participate in innate activation and memory when in a particulate form, which is a notion that supports the use of nanoparticulate antigens in vaccination strategies for achieving adjuvant-like effects of innate activation as well as priming for improved reactivity to future challenges.
Barbosa MMF, Kanno AI, Farias LP, Madej M, Sipos G, Sbrana S, et al. Primary and memory response of human monocytes to vaccines: role of nanoparticulate antigens in inducing innate memory. Nanomaterials. 2021 Apr;11(4):931. doi:10.3390/nano11040931.
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