Exosomes in the tumor microenvironment: from biology to clinical applications
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Cancer is one of the most important health problems and the second leading cause of death worldwide. Despite the advances in oncology, cancer heterogeneity remains challenging to therapeutics. This is because the exosome-mediated crosstalk between cancer and non-cancer cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME) contributes to the acquisition of all hallmarks of cancer and leads to the formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which exhibit resistance to a range of anticancer drugs. Thus, this review aims to summarize the role of TME-derived exosomes in cancer biology and explore the clinical potential of mesenchymal stem-cell-derived exosomes as a cancer treatment, discussing future prospects of cell-free therapy for cancer treatment and challenges to be overcome.
Costa VR, Araldi RP, Vigerelli H, D’Amélio F, Mendes TB, Gonzaga V, et al. Exosomes in the tumor microenvironment: from biology to clinical applications. Cells. 2021 Oct;10(10):2617. doi:10.3390/cells10102617.
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