Biochemical and toxinological characterization of venom from Macrorhynchia philippina (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)
Macrorhynchia philippina is a colonial benthic hydroid from the Class Hydrozoa (Phylum Cnidaria) distributed in the tropical and subtropical marine waters from Atlantic Ocean, Indo-Pacific, and Mozambique. Its colonies somewhat resemble plants, causing confusion in the bathers who accidentally touch the animal. Acute burning/local pain, edema, erythema, and pruritus were symptoms already described, but its venom composition is unknown, as well as the participation of toxins for the symptom’s development. Thus, herein, we show the biochemical composition and toxic effects of M. philippina venom. Colonies were collected and processed for histological analysis; alternatively, they were immersed into methanol containing 0.1% acetic acid for venom attainment, which was analyzed by mass spectrometry and submitted to edema and nociception evaluation in mice, hemolysis and antimicrobial assays in vitro. Before the molecule’s extraction, it was possible to see the inoculation structures (hydrocladiums and hydrotheca) containing venom, which was released after the immersion of the animal in the solvents. The venom was composed mainly by low molecular mass compounds, able to cause significant reduction of the paw withdrawal latency from the hot plate test, 30 minutes after the injection. Moreover, significant edema was observed 10 and 30 minutes after the injection, indicating the activity of at least two inflammatory mediators. The venom caused no hemolytic activity but reduced the growth of A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae strains. This study is the first biochemical description of M. philippina venom, with molecules that cause fast inflammatory and painful effects, characteristic of the envenomation.
Banagouro KCQ, Viana J, Lima LP, Coelho GR, Rocha T, Girardello R, et al. Biochemical and toxinological characterization of venom from Macrorhynchia philippina (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Biomed Res Int. 2022 May; 2022:8170252. doi:10.1155/2022/8170252.
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