Humoral and cellular immune responses to CoronaVac up to one year after vaccination

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Coronavac is a widely used SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine, but its long-term immune response assessment is still lacking. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses, including T cell activation markers, antigen-specific cytokine production and antibody response following vaccination in 53 adult and elderly individuals participating in a phase 3 clinical trial. Activated follicular helper T (Tfh), non-Tfh and memory CD4+ T cells were detected in almost all subjects early after the first vaccine dose. Activated memory CD4+ T cells were predominantly of central and effector memory T cell phenotypes and were sustained for at least 6 months. We also detected a balanced Th1-, Th2- and Th17/Th22-type cytokine production that was associated with response over time, together with particular cytokine profile linked to poor responses in older vaccinees. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG levels peaked 14 days after the second dose and were mostly stable over one year. CoronaVac was able to induce a potent and durable antiviral antigen-specific cellular response and the cytokine profiles related to the response over time and impacted by the senescence were defined.
Costa PR, Correia CA, Marmorato MP, Patiño EG. Humoral and cellular immune responses to CoronaVac up to one year after vaccination. Front Immunol. 2022 Oct; 13:1032411. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2022.1032411.
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