New insights into immunopathology associated to Bothrops lanceolatus snake envenomation: focus on PLA2 toxin

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The systemic increase in inflammatory mediator levels can induce diverse pathological disorders, including potentially thrombus formation, which may be lethal. Among the clinical conditions in which the formation of thrombi dictates the patient’s prognosis, envenomation by Bothrops lanceolatus should be emphasized, as it can evolve to stroke, myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolism. Despite their life-threatening potential, the immunopathological events and toxins involved in these reactions remain poorly explored. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the immunopathological events triggered by a PLA2 purified from B. lanceolatus venom, using an ex vivo human blood model of inflammation. Our results showed that the purified PLA2 from the venom of B. lanceolatus damages human erythrocytes in a dose dependent way. The cell injury was associated with a decrease in the levels of CD55 and CD59 complement regulators on the cell surface. Moreover, the generation of anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a) and the soluble terminal complement complex (sTCC) indicates that human blood exposure to the toxin activates the complement system. Increased production of TNF-α, CXCL8, CCL2 and CCL5 followed complement activation. The venom PLA2 also triggered the generation of lipid mediators, as evidenced by the detected high levels of LTB4, PGE2 and TXB2. The scenario here observed of red blood cell damage, dysfunctions of the complement regulatory proteins, accompanied by an inflammatory mediator storm, suggests that B. lanceolatus venom PLA2 contributes to the thrombotic disorders present in the envenomed individuals.
Gabrili JJ.M., Pidde-Queiroz G, Magnoli FC, Marques-Porto R, Villas-Boas IM, Squaiella-Baptistão CC, et al. New insights into immunopathology associated to Bothrops lanceolatus snake envenomation: focus on PLA2 toxin. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Jun; 24(12):9931. doi:10.3390/ijms24129931.
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