Molecular aspects involved in the mechanisms of Bothrops jararaca venom-induced Hyperalgesia: participation of NK1 Receptor and glial cells

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Accidents caused by Bothrops jararaca (Bj) snakes result in several local and systemic manifestations, with pain being a fundamental characteristic. The inflammatory process responsible for hyperalgesia induced by Bj venom (Bjv) has been studied; however, the specific roles played by the peripheral and central nervous systems in this phenomenon remain unclear. To clarify this, we induced hyperalgesia in rats using Bjv and collected tissues from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and spinal cord (SC) at 2 and 4 h post-induction. Samples were labeled for Iba-1 (macrophage and microglia), GFAP (satellite cells and astrocytes), EGR1 (neurons), and NK1 receptors. Additionally, we investigated the impact of minocycline, an inhibitor of microglia, and GR82334 antagonist on Bjv-induced hyperalgesia. Our findings reveal an increase in Iba1 in DRG at 2 h and EGR1 at 4 h. In the SC, markers for microglia, astrocytes, neurons, and NK1 receptors exhibited increased expression after 2 h, with EGR1 continuing to rise at 4 h. Minocycline and GR82334 inhibited venom-induced hyperalgesia, highlighting the crucial roles of microglia and NK1 receptors in this phenomenon. Our results suggest that the hyperalgesic effects of Bjv involve the participation of microglial and astrocytic cells, in addition to the activation of NK1 receptors.
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