Autism spectrum disorder: history, concept and future perspective

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The article narrates a brief history about the first possible descriptions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) until the publication of Leo Kanner and Hans Asperger, then reports the evolution of its definition and concept, contextualizing its first inclusion in the ICD (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health related problems) and DMS (Diagnostic and statistical Manual of mental disorders) up to its latest versions. It discusses the clinical picture characterized by heterogeneous manifestation and associated comorbidities. This article also presents the weight of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of the disorder, the diagnosis based on clinical observation and absence of biomarkers, discussions th and efficacy and limitation of pharmacological treatment and pedagogical approaches, similarly exposes a possible research strand for ASD, developed from the production of biobanks as a source of investigation of symptoms, genetic alterations, physiological dysfunctions with the objective of identifying subgroups of individuals with ASD and thus enable the targeting of individualized and more effective interventions.
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